This year’s Nobel prize for medicine goes to a researcher trio from England and the USA. Honored Willam Kaelin, Peter Ratcliffe and Gregg Semenza for their discovery of molecular mechanisms by which cells detect the oxygen content.
The fundamental importance of oxygen for the metabolism had been known for a long time, writes the Nobel prize Committee. But as cells to different oxygen levels to adjust, that’s not it. This year’s Nobel prize in medicine honor the work of researchers who have investigated these molecular mechanisms. The Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine. Illustrator: Mattias Karlén The discovery of this year’s Nobel prize in medicine is of great importance for the physiology, for example, for the metabolism or the immune response.
William G. Kaelin, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe, and Gregg L. Semenza have discovered how cells detect changes in oxygen availability and can customize how the Nobel prize Committee reported. Thus, the researchers have laid the Foundation, in order to understand how the oxygen level affects the metabolism of the cell.
All animals need oxygen to ingested food and convert it Inside the cells into life-sustaining energy. The oxygen content, the activity of numerous genes and, ultimately, the metabolic changes.
The Work of this year’s Nobel laureates have laid the foundations for the development of new strategies to combat anemia, cancer and many other diseases, according to the Nobel jury. The oxygen content in the environment is influenced in certain cases, the growth of the cells in a Tumor and its supply. Therefore, the underlying mechanisms are considered as possible starting points for cancer therapies.
Already in 2016, the scientists were honored
Gregg Semenza of Johns Hopkins Institute for Cell Engineering in Baltimore, identified in the early 1990s, a Protein that regulates these oxygen-dependent reactions. In 1995, in 1956, was able to win in the New York-born biologist, the Protein and further explore. The Name of the factor: HIF (Hypoxia Inducible Factor).
The physician William Kaelin of Harvard Medical School in Boston, born in 1957 in New York, a cancer disease, a defective Protein is based. The activity of this VHL-mentioned Protein is dependent on the oxygen content.
The Briton, Peter Ratcliffe, 1954 born in Lancashire, found out in 1999, finally, that there is a connection between the two proteins, HIF and VHL.
In the year 2016 Kaelin and Ratcliffe, and Semenza had already received the prestigious Lasker Award. As "a beautiful System" had Gregg Semenza referred to at the time, the mechanism of oxygen perception in a Video. Oxygen, the substance you consume the most and without which you can survive the shortest was.
The Institute had problems, to reach all the winners
The Karolinska Institute had difficulties to reach this year’s Nobel prize for medicine. You have had from the US-American William Kaelin first, no number, said Thomas Perlmann of the Nobel Assembly at the Institute on Monday during the announcement in Stockholm.
First of all, had been called, therefore, his sister, who have issued two numbers. At the first meeting but reached the wrong Person, in the second the Deliver of the message was a success then. "He was very glad, almost sprachlos", Perl man reported on Kaelins reaction.
The Nobel prize in medicine awarded since 1901. The first award went to the German bacteriologist Emil lied to Adolf von Behring for his discovery of serum therapy against diphtheria.
The prize winners of the past ten years were:
2018: The US-American James Allison and the Japanese Tasuku Honjo for the development of immune therapies against cancer.
2017: The American scientists Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael Young for the exploration of the Internal clock.
2016: The Japanese Yoshinori Ohsumi, of the vital Recycling System in the cells of the body decrypted has.
2015: The Chinese Youyou Tu, of the Malaria drug Artemisinin has discovered. She shared the prize with the native Irish, William C. Campbell, and Japanese Satoshi Omura, who had worked on the control of the other parasites.
2014: The Norwegian couple May-Britt and Edvard Moser and John O'Keefe (USA/great Britain) for the discovery of a GPS in the brain: they found the basic structures of our censorial bearings, antisocial.
2013: Thomas Südhof (born in Germany) and James Rothman (USA) Randy Schekman (USA) for the discovery of essential transport mechanisms in cells.
2012: Briton John Gurdon and the Japanese Shinya Yamanaka for
the Reprogramming of adult body cells in the embryonic
2011: Bruce Beutler (USA) and Jules Hoffmann (France) for
Work to alerting the innate immune system. Ralph
Steinman from Canada discovered cells, the acquired immune system
activate. He died shortly before the announcement and got the
2010: Briton Robert Edwards for the development of the
2009: Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider and Jack Szostak (all
USA) for the study of cellular aging.
The Nobel prize in Medicine have received since the first of 109 Awards a total of 216 persons, of which only twelve women. 39 Times you went to a single, 33 Times at two and 37 Times to three winners. The prize may be awarded to a maximum of three people at the same time.
The funding currently amounts to 9 million crowns (around 840 000 Euro). By the end of the week, the awards in physics, chemistry, literature and peace prize then, the following Monday, finally, the Nobel prize in economic Sciences.
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